Waste Technology

Zentraldeponie Cröbern - Förderbänder der mechanischen Aufbereitung
© BMU / Transit / Eisler

All model systems for waste management in modern industrialised countries are dominated by the two aspects of management of material flow and closed-loop recycling.
The implementation of such systems requires the introduction of technologies that contribute towards the material- and energy-efficient production of goods. Once products have reached the end of their useful life, waste processing plants that provide for optimal waste reclamation are required to ensure that the waste material be recycled or used for energy recovery. For example, biogas obtained from organic waste, processed under anaerobic conditions, can be used to make industrial plants and even residential estates self-sufficient in energy.

A wide range of different waste processing plants for the sorting, pre-treatment, recycling and safe disposal of waste have been developed in Germany and these are now generally commercially available. They all help to ensure that a considerable proportion of waste is recycled, that finite reserves of raw materials are sustained and that disposal of waste in landfills is reduced.
Optoelectronic sorting systems, mechanical-biological and mechanical-physical processing plants and incineration centres providing district heat and power output are currently considered to represent cutting edge technology in the area of domestic waste disposal.
Research in recent years into landfill waste disposal has produced significant results that can now be used to make the dumping of waste and the landfill procedure more environmentally friendly.

Limit results to
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The dynamic composting process tested represents a suitable system for the degradation of organic materials. The BioSal DYN reactor is capable of the aerobic degradation of kitchen wastes with a high proportion of fruit and vegetable content. The end product is hygienically harmless. Expand…
Keywords:  organic waste, trickling filter, decomposition, degradatio More keywords , bioreactor, waste air purification
Algae can be used for the biochemical separation of CO2 from digester gases. They convert CO2 into biomass and oxygen, thus enhancing the concentration of methane in the digester gas. The biomass can again be re-used to obtain biogas, thereby increasing the gas yield. The process is essentially relevant for gases with similar composition. Expand…
Keywords:  biogas, methane, microalgae, sludge More keywords , sewage sludge, digestion
This study involved the evaluation of various disposal options in terms of their environment-friendliness, cost-effectiveness and state-of-the-art technology for each method considered. Results obtained will allow political decision-makers in particular to provide a scientific basis for their selection of a specific disposal option. Expand…
Keywords:  sewage sludge utilization, economic viability, environmental compatibility, state of the art More keywords , life-cycle management
Infrared light can be used for the identification and sorting of different plastics in a given shredder fraction. With outputs of 85 – 90% and the production of sorted materials of highly consistent grade, the cost-effective integration of this process into the recycling market will be feasible. Expand…
Keywords:  synthetic material, sorting, motor vehicle industry, motor vehicle More keywords , shredder
In a two-stage anaerobic plant using the Schwarting-Uhde process, it has been demonstrated that the biological treatment of organic wastes, even residual wastes, represents an economical and ecologically sound alternative to disposal by combustion. Process residues are suitable for landfill, on the grounds of their low level of respiratory activity. Expand…
The methodology developed for the evaluation of underground disposal facilities for toxic chemical wastes will form the basis for an overall evaluation. In the planning and construction of future facilities, and for the review of existing operations, the process described will provide a useful resource for the selection and comparative evaluation of procedures. Expand…
Keywords:  valuation, underground mining, sanitary landfilling, procedure comparison More keywords , waste disposal
In container tests and field trials, products from manure processing and deep litter substrate have been investigated in order to determine scope for the recycling of these materials in agriculture and horticulture. These materials have had a positive impact upon yields, particularly for the culture of forage maize and potatoes. The heavy metal content of soil has remained unchanged following the use of products from manure processing. Expand…
Keywords:  plant production, conditioning process, heavy metal content, fertilization More keywords , soil fertilisation, semi-liquid manure
In addition to the characterisation of various types of water, reciprocal reactions between relevant waste and water samples have also been investigated. It has been established that, on the grounds of water solubility, filter dusts and flue gas scrubbing residues from hazardous and household waste incineration plants will not generally be suitable for immission-neutral landfill in underground facilities. Expand…
Keywords:  deposit, groundwater, interaction, waste More keywords , tailings, water sample
Tests on intact tomato plants using radioactive tracers show that fluoranthene is absorbed by the roots as well as the shoot, and is partially metabolised. In contrast, radioactivity from PCB-77 contaminated compost only accumulates in the root material. Expand…
Keywords:  bioaccumulation, persistence, pollutant, compost More keywords , radioactivity
On the basis of the data of 227 public disposal facilities (year of reference 1995) the disposal costs for individual types of waste and various fields of waste disposal were examined. For the analysis of factors of influence on the expenses as well as for the identification of cost saving potentials characteristic numbers were defined, which also permit the comparison of the various disposal facilities. In all examined types of waste and fields the results show partially substantial differences in the expenses of the examined disposal facilities, which indicates a potential for curbing expenses. Expand…
Keywords:  waste disposal, waste disposal cost, waste management, domestic waste More keywords , municipal waste, cost structure, trend of costs, cost reduction, cost accounting
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