Waste Technology

Zentraldeponie Cröbern - Förderbänder der mechanischen Aufbereitung
© BMU / Transit / Eisler

All model systems for waste management in modern industrialised countries are dominated by the two aspects of management of material flow and closed-loop recycling.
The implementation of such systems requires the introduction of technologies that contribute towards the material- and energy-efficient production of goods. Once products have reached the end of their useful life, waste processing plants that provide for optimal waste reclamation are required to ensure that the waste material be recycled or used for energy recovery. For example, biogas obtained from organic waste, processed under anaerobic conditions, can be used to make industrial plants and even residential estates self-sufficient in energy.


A wide range of different waste processing plants for the sorting, pre-treatment, recycling and safe disposal of waste have been developed in Germany and these are now generally commercially available. They all help to ensure that a considerable proportion of waste is recycled, that finite reserves of raw materials are sustained and that disposal of waste in landfills is reduced.
Optoelectronic sorting systems, mechanical-biological and mechanical-physical processing plants and incineration centres providing district heat and power output are currently considered to represent cutting edge technology in the area of domestic waste disposal.
Research in recent years into landfill waste disposal has produced significant results that can now be used to make the dumping of waste and the landfill procedure more environmentally friendly.


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The dynamic composting process tested represents a suitable system for the degradation of organic materials. The BioSal DYN reactor is capable of the aerobic degradation of kitchen wastes with a high proportion of fruit and vegetable content. The end product is hygienically harmless. Expand…
This study involved the evaluation of various disposal options in terms of their environment-friendliness, cost-effectiveness and state-of-the-art technology for each method considered. Results obtained will allow political decision-makers in particular to provide a scientific basis for their selection of a specific disposal option. Expand…
Infrared light can be used for the identification and sorting of different plastics in a given shredder fraction. With outputs of 85 – 90% and the production of sorted materials of highly consistent grade, the cost-effective integration of this process into the recycling market will be feasible. Expand…
In a two-stage anaerobic plant using the Schwarting-Uhde process, it has been demonstrated that the biological treatment of organic wastes, even residual wastes, represents an economical and ecologically sound alternative to disposal by combustion. Process residues are suitable for landfill, on the grounds of their low level of respiratory activity. Expand…
On the basis of the data of 227 public disposal facilities (year of reference 1995) the disposal costs for individual types of waste and various fields of waste disposal were examined. For the analysis of factors of influence on the expenses as well as for the identification of cost saving potentials characteristic numbers were defined, which also permit the comparison of the various disposal facilities. In all examined types of waste and fields the results show partially substantial differences in the expenses of the examined disposal facilities, which indicates a potential for curbing expenses. Expand…
The key focus of investigations has been the influence of various printing ink components upon the de-inking of used paper. On the basis of results obtained, a water-based flexographic printing ink has been developed which has shown good results, both in the de-inking process and in practical printing tests. Expand…
Two significant developments have emerged from research work conducted into the application of used paper for high-quality paper production: flotation headers for the more effective release of fine particles of filler and carbon black, thereby improving the quality of used paper, and a water-based flexographic printing ink which can easily removed by flotation in conventional headers. Expand…
High-resolution combustion chamber spectroscopy has been tested in a pilot plant in order to clarify findings to the effect that NOx formation in waste incineration plants is influenced by combustion control and the geometry of the combustion chamber. This “ORFEUS” system has proven its value as a diagnostic tool for combustion chamber analysis. Expand…
The process tested under the project has since been further developed for industrial usage. It uses aramid fibres recycled from textile waste to mechanically and tribologically strengthen injection-moulded components.
Containers for liquid, semi-liquid and solid hazardous materials can be restored to a serviceable condition, depending upon the usage required by the specialised companies concerned. In order to optimise process control for the purposes of reconditioning, researchers at the University of Dortmund have developed evaluation rules and methods which can be used for the more reliable determination of the condition of packaging delivered. Further information is set out in the brochure.
388 information in Waste Technology
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