Energy Management for Industrial Plants

Generic model of a paper-making machine for an energy flow analysis

The model forms a basis for the comparison of the energy flows in all paper-making machines in operation in the company.


The aim of the project carried out at August Koehler AG was to develop a generic model of a paper-making machine. A basic design with obligatory and optional processes was therefore developed under the scope of the project. The company intends to use this model to compare the energy flows of all paper-making machines in operation and as a basis for further specific simulations.

In principle, the model assumes that the drying process is a core paper manufacturing process, the idea being that heating the pulp (such as paper) and heating and evaporating the water content are responsible for the amount of energy used. TThis can be calculated by means of the specific heat capacities of the pulp or paper, the water, and the water vapour, and on the basis of the evaporation heat of the water.

The inlet temperature of the solution and the process temperature also contribute to the result.

Heat losses and the step-by-step addition of heat mean that the model can only simulate part of the process, i.e. the actual heat required. A comparison with data from the real production process is therefore absolutely essential. A correction factor can be used to compensate for the differences. The extent of this correction fact can provide important information on heat losses or the inadequacy of the thermal insulation.

In addition, the electrical drive power is considered. This can be calculated from the power measured and the average machine running time.

The model developed during the project can be used to compare paper-making machines with a clearly defined project reference. It also serves as a basis for a more in-depth simulation of additional processes.

It is recommended that the following steps are taken next:

  • A further comparison of the model with reality by recording additional data
  • A refinement of the model in respect of the drying processes
  • The calculation of variations and scenarios

More Project Information

Project period: 2003 - 2004

Project region: Germany (Baden-Württemberg)

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Quelle: Landesanstalt für Umwelt Baden-Württemberg